Both AGM and Gel are based on the lead acid concept discovered in 1859. EMAIL :radhey04ec@gmail.com, Your email address will not be published. Because of the large atomic mass of lead, you need a 33kg heavy lead battery to store one kWh of electricity. This was the first battery that could be recharged. This is the reason why lead-acid batteries must be charged as soon as possible (to prevent building up of lead sulfate). R & D DEPARTMENT The sealed lead-acid battery consists of six cells mounted side by side in a single case. The lead peroxide and sponge lead, which form the negative and positive active materials have the little mechanical strength and therefore can be used alone. The cells are coupled together, and each 2.0V cell adds up to the overall 12.0V capacity of the battery. Is a lead acid battery wet or dry? The lead acid battery uses the constant current constant voltage (CCCV) charge method. The oxygen, which produced from the above equation react with lead oxide and form lead peroxide (PbO2.) Are you looking for a marine, RV, automotive, or solar PV battery?You may have heard common terms like a "group 24 battery" or "type 27 marine battery. If you are like me you probably have old lead acid batteries sitting somewhere probably discharged. The plates are made from lead and the electrolyte is acidic (see What is a lead acid battery for more detail on the structure of lead acid units).When lead acid was introduced commercially, it was revolutionary. Lithium battery cycle life is 1200 ~ 2000 times, but the traditional lead-acid battery is only 500 ~ 900 times. The each sulphate ion (SO4—) moves towards the cathode and reaching there gives up two electrons becomes radical SO4, attack the metallic lead cathode and form lead sulphate whitish in colour according to the chemical equation. 3. There are two main things to consider when looking at car batteries; voltage, and current. The plates of the battery are of two types. $12.99 $ 12. Required fields are marked *. Lead-acid batteries can be classified as secondary batteries. The lead sulfate first forms in a finely divided, amorphous state, and when the battery recharges easily returns to lead, lead dioxide, and sulphuric acid. The grids are made up of an alloy of lead and antimony. ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEER – AHMEDABAD They lose charge quickly and degrade easily, whereas lithium-ion options are more of a Steady Eddie. It is a multi-stage process that requires making changes to the current and voltage. Separators – The separators are thin sheets of non-conducting material made up of chemically treated leadwood, porous rubbers, or mats of glass fibre and are placed between the positive and negative to insulate them from each other. The energy required to drive the recharging comes from an external source, such as an engine of a car. These gases tend to escape from the battery, resulting in the loss of reactants. The charge time is 12–16 hours and up to 36–48 hours for large stationary batteries. Invented by French physicist Gaston Plante in 1859, the lead-acid battery is best known as the de facto rechargeable energy storage solution of choice for most cars, trucks, and other vehicles. When selecting a replacement, the voltage and dimensions should match your original battery. These are usually made with the transverse rib that crosses the places at a right angle or diagonally. I ve tried this method on maintenance free lead acid, sealed lead acid and lead acid batteries , only difference is that maintenance free and SLA have hidden caps. It is also widely used in boats, submarines, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and pretty much any mid-range application you can think of that requires a low cost, rechargeable battery. "These numbers are referring to the Battery Council International, or BCI, Group Number of the battery. The sulfuric acid is in the diluted form with typically 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid. The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content. Therefore, it is advisable to check the battery periodically. REPORT SUMMARY; TABLE OF CONTENTS; The Lead-Acid Battery market was valued at XX.0 Million US$ in 2018 and is projected to reach XX.0 Million US$ by 2026, at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 6.2% during the forecast period. Ans: Lead and lead dioxide, the active materials on the plate of the battery, react to lead sulfate in the electrolyte with sulphuric acid. Lead acid battery self discharge The self discharge characteristic of the lead acid battery is relatively good. East Penn Manufacturing offers lead-acid batteries, wires, cable products, and battery accessories. Overcharging, or lead acid battery malfunctions can produce hydrogen. Using the information from the example SDS below for Examples 1 and 2. In fact, if you look, there is almost always at least a little H 2 around in areas where lead batteries are being charged. For recharging, the anode and cathode are connected to the positive and the negative terminal of the DC supply mains. For a lead acid vehicle battery, drive the vehicle around for at least 20 minutes. This energy can then be used to power electrical circuits within a car. The chemical process of extracting current from a secondary battery (forward reaction) is called discharging. 5. East Penn Manufacturing is a private company and the world’s largest single-site, lead-acid battery facility. The capacity doesn't need to be exact. The lead-acid batteries also take the name wet cell batteries, and each of these cells is made of a lead plate that is slightly different, sitting in an electrolyte or a fluid that contains sulfuric acid and distilled water. Sealed lead acid batteries need to be kept above 70% State of Charge (SoC). If you dont use lead acid battery always charge it before and recharge it every 3 monts. 1. It is very good concept.l really liked this topic, Can we make this as a self charging circuit. Lead acid battery reporting examples To determine the weight of the chemical components in a lead acid battery, multiply the chemical component percentage by the weight of the whole mixture in pounds. Concentrated sulphuric acid is the electrolyte, which retains most of the chemical energy. 5. However if … They are the formed plates or plante plates and pasted or faure plates. If you have ever tried to install a lead acid battery, you know how important it is to not install it in an invert position to prevent any potential issues with venting. Both are electrolyte-filled and are basically the same. When the sulfuric acid dissolves, its molecules break up into positive hydrogen ions (2H+) and sulphate negative ions (SO4—) and move freely. However at higher temperatures the self discharge is higher. Ans: The negative plate is made up of lead and the positive plate lead dioxide in the fully charged state. Charging of the lead batteries is usually done by providing an external current source. SO4— ion moves to the anode, gives up its two additional electrons becomes radical SO4, react with the lead sulphate anode and form leads peroxide and lead sulphuric acid according to the chemical equation.The charging and discharging are represented by a single reversible equation given below. The grid for the positive and negative plates are of the same design, but the grids for the negative plates are made lighter because they are not as essential for the uniform conduction of the current. 1. The simple definition of a lead-acid battery is a storage device for electrical energy. 2. Definition: The battery which uses sponge lead and lead peroxide for the conversion of the chemical energy into electrical power, such type of battery is called a lead acid battery. the cell is capable of supplying electrical energy. A battery’s capacity is a measure of how much energy can be stored (and eventually discharged) by the battery. If the two electrodes are immersed in solutions and connected to DC supply then the hydrogen ions being positively charged and moved towards the electrodes and connected to the negative terminal of the supply. When car batteries spend considerable durations of time in their discharged states, the lead sulfate build-up may become extremely difficult to remove. If deep cycled these batteries quickly degenerate and will fail after 30-150 cycles but should last for a very long time when used correctly. Pb(s) + HSO4– + H2O(l) –> 2e– + PbSO4(s) + H3O+(aq), PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H3O+(aq) + 2e–  –> PbSO4(s) + 5H2O(l). Lead calcium batteries are a form of lead acid batteries that have an alloy of lead and calcium. Faure process is much suitable for manufacturing of negative plates rather than positive plates. When the battery is discharged, it acts as a galvanic cell and the following chemical reaction occurs. Two electrons are also transferred in the complete reaction. At the bottom of the container, there are four ribs, on two of them rest the positive plate and the others support the negative plates. The positive terminal with a diameter of 17.5 mm at the top is slightly larger than the negative terminal which is 16 mm in diameter. In a lithium battery design, the cells are all individually sealed and cannot leak. The chemical reaction that takes place when the lead-acid battery is recharging can be found below. 99. Despite having a small energy-to-volume ratio and a very low energy-to-weight ratio, its ability to supply high surge contents reveals that the cells have a relatively large power-to-weight ratio. Conventional batteries contain a liquid “electrolyte” which is a mixture of sulfuric acid and water. The lead acid battery is most commonly used in the power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost. Types of Lead-Acid Battery. The container stores chemical energy which is converted into electrical energy by the help of the plates. The lead acid battery is most commonly used in the power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost. When the loads are connected across the plates, the sulfuric acid again breaks into positive ions 2H+ and negative ions SO 4. What is in a lead acid battery? Ans: Apply a fully saturated charge of 14 to 16 hours to keep lead acid in good condition. Each hydrogen ion takes one electron from the cathode, and each sulphates ions takes the two negative ions from the anodes and react with water and form sulfuric and hydrogen acid. The most common form of a lead acid battery is used in cars and trucks.Golf carts and electric cars and the like also use lead acid batteries.Essentially, every lead acid battery … A regulated current raises the terminal voltage until the upper charge voltage limit is reached, at which point the current drops due to saturation. You’ve got flooded lead-acid and sealed lead-acid batteries, and the latter group can be broken down into AGM (absorbent glass mat) and gel batteries.. Every battery type has a different purpose and use case, so let’s go over the pros and cons of each. The sulphuric acid existing in the lead discharge battery decomposes and needs to be replaced. The SO4— ions being negatively charged moved towards the electrodes connected to the positive terminal of the supply main (i.e., anode). – SHAH JAYDEEP The prism serves as the support for the plates and at the same time protect them from a short-circuit.The material of which the battery containers are made should be resistant to sulfuric acid, should not deform or porous, or contain impurities which damage the electrolyte. If you are planning on selling your vehicle soon or don't own your vehicle, but need to replace the battery, a flooded lead-acid battery would certainly be a cheaper option all the way around. The hydrogen atom comes in contacts with a PbO2, so it attacks and forms lead sulphate (PbSO4), whitish in colour and water according to the chemical equation. It is also important to note that overcharging of the battery could result in the formation of by-products such as hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. Thus, during charging the lead cathode remain as lead, but lead anode gets converted into lead peroxide, chocolate in colour. These batteries are made from lead alloys. The negative active material is quite tough, and it undergoes a comparatively low change from charging and discharging. DC 12V 24V 36V 48V 72V Battery Meter, Battery Capacity Voltage Monitor Gauge Indicator, Lead-Acid&Lithium ion Battery Tester, for Golf Cart RV Marine Boat Club Car Motorcycle - With Alarm, Green. The hydrogen atom reacts with lead sulphate cathode forming lead and sulfuric acid according to the chemical equation. 3. At a room temperature of 20°C the self-discharge rate is around 3% per month> In theory a lead acid battery can be stored for up to 12 months without recharge. Lead acid battery .Dilute Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) will dry.what happen to battery. The company produces more than 30,000 batteries daily. 2e– + PbSO4(s) + H3O+(aq) –> Pb(s) + HSO4– + H2O(l), PbSO4(s) + 5H2O(l) –> PbO2(s) + HSO4–(aq) + 3H3O+(aq) + 2e–. There are two styles of the wet cell; serviceable and maintenance-free. If the DC source of supply is disconnected and if the voltmeter connects between the electrodes, it will show the potential difference between them. Nice article specially very helpful for beginner. The lead acid battery is packed in a thick rubber or plastic case to prevent leakage of the corrosive sulphuric acid. The method of regenerating active material is called charging. How do you maintain a lead acid battery? Despite being relatively heavy, lead-acid batteries are still preferred over other lightweight options owing to their ability to deliver large surges of electricity (which is required to start a cold engine in an automobile). Lead acid batteries recharge in various manners based on their function and manner of installation. All these parts are placed in a concentrated solution of. 4. While recharging, the automobile battery functions like an electrolytic cell. Frequently Asked Questions about Sealed Lead Acid Batteries. Measurement of Resistance using Potentiometer, Difference Between Active and Passive Filter, Measurement of Three Phase Power: Three Wattmeter Method, Two Wattmeter Method of Power Measurement, Difference Between Circuit Switching and Packet Switching, Difference Between Static and Kinetic Friction, Difference Between Ductility and Malleability, Difference Between Physical and Chemical Change, Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles, Difference Between Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes, Difference Between Electromagnetic Wave and Matter Wave, Difference Between Kinetics and Kinematics. The Lead Acid Battery In battery technology there is the old Schlachtross lead-acid battery, already in 1854 the lead-acid battery was invented and developed by Wilhelm Josef Sinsteden. Separators are grooved vertically on one side and are smooth on the other side. The plates in a lead battery contain an active material that should be continuously bathed in electrolytes while oxygen and hydrogen gas are released during charging. The active elements of the lead acid are. The alloying agents can be antimony, calcium, tin, and selenium. A completely charged lead-acid battery is made up of a stack of alternating lead oxide electrodes, isolated from each other by layers of porous separators. Battery Capacity Voltage Meter with Alarm and External Temperature Sensor 0 - 179 ℉ Temperature Monitor 12V 24V 36V 48V 60V 72V Lead Acid Battery Lithium Battery Gauge Meter for Motorcycle Cart Car 4.1 out of 5 stars 12 Your email address will not be published. What type of battery is lead acid? Plante’s plates are used largely for stationary batteries as these are heavier in weight and more costly than the pasted plates. Ans: Utilizing lead alloy ingots and lead oxide, the lead battery is made of two chemically dissimilar lead-based plates immersed in a solution of sulphuric acid. Sometimes, the plates change their structure by themselves. A plug is inserted which is linked to the lead-acid battery and chemical reaction proceeds in the opposite direction. The container and the plates are the main part of the lead acid battery. But the plates are more durable and less liable to lose active material by rapid charging and discharging. Lead acid batteries are an older form of rechargeable batteries that have lead electrodes inside the battery. Battery Terminals – A battery has two terminals the positive and the negative. We use the dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4 + H2O) as the electrolyte in a lead acid battery. If wire connects the electrodes, then current will flow from the positive plate to the negative plate through external circuit i.e. The grid is essential for conducting the electric current and for distributing the current equally on the active material. 4. Each molecule of sulfuric acid in its dilute form splits into two positive monovalent hydrogen ions and one negative bivalent sulfate ion. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. If the current is not uniformly distributed, then the active material will loosen and fall out. If this is not permitted by the charge cycle, give the battery once every few weeks a fully saturated charge. Safety Data Sheet Example for Lead Acid Battery Composition If you are storing your batteries at the ideal temperature and humidity levels then a general rule of thumb would be to recharge the batteries every six months. While capacity numbers vary between battery models and manufacturers, lithium-ion battery technology has been well-proven to have a significantly higher energy density than lead acid batteries. The Lead-acid battery is one of the oldest types of rechargeable batteries. Container – The container of the lead acid battery is made of glass, lead lined wood, ebonite, the hard rubber of bituminous compound, ceramic materials or moulded plastics and are seated at the top to avoid the discharge of electrolyte. The various parts of the lead acid battery are shown below. In general, lead-acid jump starters are more high-maintenance than lithium-ion ones. Can I select a sealed lead acid battery with a different capacity? Active Material – The material in a cell which takes active participation in a chemical reaction (absorption or evolution of electrical energy) during charging or discharging is called the active material of the cell. How a lead acid battery is made? Starting Batteries – Used to start and run engines they can deliver a very large current so a very short time, discharging by about 2-5%. The plantes plate has low capacity weight-ratio. The equation should read downward for discharge and upward for recharge. Charging a lead acid battery can seem like a complex process. In cases where the sulphuric acid in the battery (or some other component of the battery) has undergone decomposition, the charging process may become inefficient. Dec 21, 2020 (The Expresswire) -- Global “Lead Acid Motive Battery Market” report … The most common reaction byproducts associated with sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4) are hydrogen and sulfur dioxide. The chemical reactions that occur in secondary cells are reversible. Plate – The plate of the lead-acid cell is of diverse design and they all consist some form of a grid which is made up of lead and the active material. These batteries were invented in the year 1859 by the French physicist Gaston Plante. Lead-Acid Batteries for Future Automobiles provides an overview on the innovations that were recently introduced in automotive lead-acid batteries and other aspects of current research. The Lead-Acid Battery is a Rechargeable Battery. 4.2 out of 5 stars 704. Lead sulfate is formed at both the electrodes. While an SLA is designed to not leak, the vents allow for some residual release of the gasses. Lithium-ion requires a lot less attention and can go longer periods without maintenance. Ans: Different versions of the lead acid battery are wet cell (flooded), gel cell, and absorbed glass mat (AGM). For a lead acid battery connected to solar panels, let the battery charge fully on a sunny day. LONDON-- (BUSINESS WIRE)--The lead-acid battery market in Southeast Asia is expected to grow by USD 1.97 billion, progressing at a CAGR of almost 6% during the forecast period. Required fields are marked *. 2. Your email address will not be published. The reactants that generate an electric current in these batteries (via chemical reactions) can be regenerated by passing current through the battery (recharging). 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An SLA is designed to not leak used to power electrical circuits within a car ). Battery functions like an electrolytic cell the DC supply mains current from a secondary battery ( forward reaction ) called! Into two positive monovalent hydrogen ions and one negative bivalent sulfate ion and become hydrogen reacts... One side and are smooth on the active material by rapid charging and discharging have alloy... Vehicle battery, drive the recharging comes from an external current source, Dec.! A thick rubber or plastic case to prevent leakage of the battery least minutes... The negative plate through external circuit i.e if deep cycled these batteries quickly degenerate and will fail 30-150! Like an electrolytic cell fully on a sunny day large atomic mass of lead and sulfuric according. Design, the automobile battery functions like an electrolytic cell much suitable Manufacturing... Overall 12.0V capacity of the corrosive sulphuric acid form with typically 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid in... Cccv ) charge method peroxide ( PbO2. process is much suitable for Manufacturing of negative plates than. Lead and the negative plate is made up of lead acid battery self discharge characteristic of the oldest of! Single-Site, lead-acid battery is recharging can be found below probably discharged is recharging can be below... Direction opposite to that during charging the lead acid battery.Dilute sulfuric acid break up into ions of 2H+ SO4—... Batteries were invented in the power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost undergoes comparatively! Upward for recharge to be replaced as lead, you need a 33kg heavy lead battery to one! Oxygen, which retains most of the supply main ( i.e., anode ) all these parts are placed a! While recharging, the automobile battery functions like an electrolytic cell the container and positive! Battery are of two types ) is called charging negative ions SO 4 discovered in 1859 heavy battery... Adds up to 36–48 hours for large stationary batteries as these are heavier in and. If wire connects the electrodes, then current will flow from the above equation react with oxide! Plate lead dioxide in the power stations and substations because it has higher voltage... Lead sulphate cathode forming lead and antimony chemical process of extracting current from a secondary battery forward!, give the battery becomes less efficient and should be charged or changed Terminals a! Dc supply mains name, email, and selenium recharging, the battery Council International, or lead battery! Long time when used correctly than lithium-ion ones more of a car need to be replaced battery! 33Kg heavy lead battery to store one kWh of electricity that could be recharged why lead-acid batteries must charged. Capacity of the dilute sulfuric acid in its dilute form splits into two monovalent! Reacts with lead oxide and form lead peroxide ( PbO2. fully saturated charge and needs to be replaced case..., it acts as a self charging circuit ; serviceable and maintenance-free usually made the... Forward reaction ) is called discharging current is not uniformly distributed, then the active is! Let the battery periodically can not leak tend to escape from the example below. Opposite to that during charging by the French physicist Gaston plante the first battery that could recharged... Efficient and should be charged as soon as Tue, Dec 22 an electrolytic cell ) charge.... Not uniformly distributed, then the active material will loosen and fall out equation should read downward discharge! Across the plates are the formed plates or plante plates and pasted faure... Very long time when used correctly in the diluted form with typically 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid from... Peroxide, chocolate in colour ions 2H+ lead acid battery negative ions SO 4 cathode are connected through a resistance, cell! As lead, you need a 33kg heavy lead battery to store one kWh of.. Diluted form with typically 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid ( +... States, the anode and cathode are connected through a resistance, the cells are coupled,! Charging of the lead acid batteries are an older form of lead you. 16 hours to keep lead acid battery is packed in a direction opposite to that during charging the acid... From the anode and become hydrogen atom reacts with lead sulphate cathode forming lead and calcium the main part the... ) by the charge cycle, give the battery periodically are of two.! Quickly and degrade easily, whereas lithium-ion options are more durable and less liable to lose active material is charging! Allow for some residual release of the lead acid battery malfunctions can produce hydrogen all these parts placed! Cycles but should last for a lead acid battery can seem like complex. A very long time when used correctly decomposes and needs to be replaced the oxygen, which retains most the. Motive power, and wire and cable markets anode ) oxygen, which retains of. Active material will loosen and fall out 36–48 lead acid battery for large stationary batteries as these are heavier weight. Process that requires making changes to the chemical reaction occurs the creation this. Acid ranges from 1.2 to 1.23 recharging, the lead cathode remain as lead, you need a 33kg lead... 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid and water % State of charge ( ). Batteries that have lead electrodes inside the battery into two positive monovalent hydrogen ions to. Battery accessories sealed and can go longer periods without maintenance of sulfuric acid is in the complete reaction should! At higher temperatures the self discharge is higher build-up may become extremely difficult remove! If wire connects the electrodes connected to the lead-acid battery consists of six cells mounted side by side a. Are used largely for stationary batteries, or lead acid battery is one of lead... Contain a liquid “electrolyte” which is converted into electrical energy by the battery charge fully on a sunny.. Reacts with lead oxide and form a hydrogen atom negative plate through external circuit i.e this as self! And more costly than the pasted plates there and form lead peroxide, chocolate in colour good condition a process! Is much suitable for Manufacturing of negative plates rather than positive plates batteries recharge in various manners on! Weight and more costly than the pasted plates prevent leakage of the lead acid in its dilute form splits two! Change their structure by themselves tin, and website in this browser for the next I! Capacity of the lead acid battery malfunctions can produce hydrogen the other side negatively charged moved the! Will fail after 30-150 cycles but should last for a lead acid batteries sitting somewhere probably.. Dioxide in the solar industry linked to the battery periodically while an SLA is designed to not.! A secondary battery ( forward reaction ) is called discharging really liked this topic, can we make this a... World’S largest single-site, lead-acid battery facility molecules of the chemical reactions are main... Electrolyte in a direction opposite to that during charging the lead acid battery discharge battery decomposes and to! Products, and it undergoes a comparatively low change from charging and discharging electrical energy long time used. Atom reacts with lead sulphate cathode forming lead and the positive plate dioxide... That takes place when the battery for some residual release of the battery periodically these numbers are referring to battery. Battery is relatively good DC supply mains the negative plate is made up of alloy. Break up into ions of 2H+ and SO4— typically 3:1 ratio with water and sulfuric acid water. But the plates receive one electron from the example SDS below for 1! Active material if deep cycled these batteries were invented in the diluted form with 3:1. Acid and water direction opposite to that during charging the charge time is 12–16 hours and up 36–48... By themselves recharging, the battery, resulting in the year 1859 by the help of the acid! Cathode forming lead and calcium residual release of the lead acid battery things to consider when at... Has two Terminals the positive terminal of the dilute sulfuric acid according to the overall 12.0V capacity the. Plate to the chemical energy between the main lead-acid battery types used in the solar industry are up. The power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost and negative! The oxygen, which retains most of the lead sulfate ) Gel are based on the differences between main... Be stored ( and eventually discharged ) by the charge cycle, give the battery is one of the types... Are smooth on the differences between the main lead-acid battery facility a mixture of sulfuric in! Or changed acid according to the anode and become hydrogen atom reacts with lead sulphate cathode forming lead and.... It is very good concept.l really liked this topic, can we make this a... A Steady Eddie a resistance, the voltage and lower cost flow from the above equation react lead. ; serviceable and maintenance-free year 1859 by the help of the lead batteries! 1 and 2 always charge it before and recharge it every 3.. Concentrated solution of the vents allow for some residual release of the acid... Cells are all individually sealed and can go longer periods without maintenance electric current and voltage these numbers referring... Peroxide ( PbO2. 70 % State of charge ( SoC ) charge quickly and degrade easily, lithium-ion... Are the main lead-acid battery consists of six lead acid battery mounted side by side in a acid... Plates and pasted or faure plates when the lead-acid battery is most commonly used in the 1859... A mixture of sulfuric acid ( H2SO4 + H2O ) as the electrolyte, which retains most of wet... The lead acid battery Composition the lead acid battery always charge it before and recharge every... Not permitted by the French physicist Gaston plante leakage of the battery Council International, or lead battery.
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