Health Benefits of Durian fruit. Smith & Nephew Fellowships in Medicine Smith & Nephew Associated Companies Limited invite applications for awards of six Fellowships in medicine. The flesh is thick, not solid, yellow coloured, and has a sweet taste. Effect of manure and chemical fertilizer on vegetative growth of off-season durian production. The various preferences regarding ripeness among consumers make it hard to issue general statements about choosing a "good" durian. [85] The warnings against the supposed lecherous quality of this fruit soon spread to the West – the Swedenborgian philosopher Herman Vetterling commented on so-called "erotic properties" of the durian in the early 20th century. The average Yunwei Niu, Zhengmin Yao, Qing Xiao, Zuobing Xiao, Ning Ma, Jiancai Zhu. [78] Strong nylon or woven rope netting is often strung between durian trees in orchards, serving a threefold purpose: the nets aid in the collection of the mature fruits, deter ground-level scavengers, and prevent the durians from falling onto people. It is neither acidic nor sweet nor juicy; yet it wants neither of these qualities, for it is in itself perfect. The Durian fruit is famous for being a botanical stink-monster. The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk with each flower having a calyx (sepals) and five (rarely four or six) petals. The presence of EPO lessened the uptake of water, as can be seen in Fig. N GCV 39,45 25,65 14,38 7,4 5,2 43,92 6,01 49,07 1,0 14,68 d.a.f dry ash free basis, diff. It also helps bind and eliminates cancer-causing chemicals from the gut. I like to do this in a very organized way so that I can follow my work later, just in case I make a small mistake. Another cultivar is from Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Indonesia. The mechanical and chemical composition of the two soil types found in the designated sites are given in Table 3. [54][55] While some of these animals eat the fruit and dispose of the seed under the parent plant, others swallow the seed with the fruit, and then transport it some distance before excreting, with the seed being dispersed as a result. [41] China is the major importer, purchasing 65,000 tonnes in 1999, followed by Singapore with 40,000 tonnes and Taiwan with 5,000 tonnes. Durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.There are about 30 recognised Durio species, however, at least nine of which produce edible fruits. Durian rind cellulose was prepared using two steps process according to Tawakkal et al. The cocktail of compounds that gives the durian fruit its notorious stench has been identified by ... of Munich in Germany has used a combination of GC–MS and aroma extract dilution analysis to try and identify the chemical culprits. [63], Young leaves and shoots of the durian are occasionally cooked as greens. "[47] Despite having tried many foods that are arguably more eccentric, Andrew Zimmern, host of Bizarre Foods, was unable to finish a durian upon sampling it, due to his intolerance of its strong taste. The chemical composition of durian seeds starch is presented in Table 1. Proximate composition is reported. For each composition, five samples were immersed in distilled water for 2 months. [11][12] Durio s.s. and Boschia have indistinguishable vegetative characteristics and many shared floral characteristics. Composition of the Durian Peel Biomass Average relative chemical contents (dry matter) of the durian peel biomass analyzed in this study are shown in Table1. in the carbohydrate composi tion of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%), gluc ose (37.1-45.1%), arabinose (0.58-3.41%), and xyl ose (0.3-3.21%). [50] Sugar content, primarily sucrose, has a range of 8-20% among different durian varieties. [3] Among the varieties of D. zibethinus, Thai varieties are sweeter in flavour and less odorous than Malay ones. In Java, the seeds are sliced thin and cooked with sugar as a confection. However, in more recent circumscriptions of Durioneae, the tribe into which Durio and its sister taxa fall, fleshy arils and spiny fruits are derived within the clade. were compared with snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) Vitamin C contents of the leather were relatively high and ranged between 21.6-26.6 mg/lOO g. Water activity (Aw) of all formulations ranged between 0.57-0.62 and caloric content, 431 -473 Kcall 00 g. After 12 weeks' storage, all durian leather formulations were stable and showed low mold counts. In the same year, the United States imported 2,000 tonnes, mostly frozen, and the European Community imported 500 tonnes. 132, 1536. Now that we've got the balanced chemical reaction we can go ahead and perform the calculations with the numbers. [19] The fruit of many species has never been collected or properly examined, however, so other species may have edible fruit. [61] Red-fleshed durian is traditionally added to sayur, an Indonesian soup made from freshwater fish. Wallace described himself as being at first reluctant to try it because of the aroma, "but in Borneo I found a ripe fruit on the ground, and, eating it out of doors, I at once became a confirmed Durian eater". The most recent molecular evidence (on which the most recent, well-supported circumscription of Durioneae is based) therefore refutes Corner's Durian Theory. This study investigated the effects of temperature (20 and 30 °C) and pH (pH 3.1, 3.9) on kinetic changes of chemical constituents of the durian wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For some people in northern Thailand, the preference is for the fruit to be soft and aromatic. [44] An alternative method is to eat the durian in accompaniment with mangosteen, which is considered to have cooling properties. As mentioned in the In peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, the season for durians is typically from June to August, coinciding with that of the mangosteen. There is disagreement over whether this name, bestowed by Linnaeus, refers to civets being so fond of the durian that the fruit was used as bait to entrap them, or to the durian smelling like the civet. This paper present the physical behaviour, chemical structure and crystallinity of the fibres, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). [10] Durio sensu stricto comprises 24 of these species. Off-season durian production Somporn Na Nakorn1* and Chaiporn Chalumpak 2 1, 2, Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajamangala University of Technology Srivijaya, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand 80110 Somporn , N. N. and Chalumpak , C. (2015). The fruit, bark, roots, and leaves are used to make medicine. Musang King is known for its bright yellow flesh and is like a more potent or enhanced version of the D24. [75][76] A saying in Indonesian, ketiban durian runtuh, which translates to "getting hit by a durian", is the equivalent of the English phrase "windfall gain". These three genera together form a clade that is characterised by highly modified (mono- and polythecate, as opposed to bithecate) anthers. Correlation analysis would make the selection process of lai and durian breeding programs easier (Saftner et al., 2008; Gadze et al., 2011; Eggink et al., 2012). [10] In Malaysia, a spineless durian clone D172 is registered by Agriculture Department on 17 June 1989. They used to be grown with mixed results from seeds of trees bearing superior quality fruit, but now are propagated by layering, marcotting, or more commonly, by grafting, including bud, veneer, wedge, whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected rootstocks. [29], Popular cultivars in Malaysia and Singapore (Singapore imports most of its durians from Malaysia, hence the varieties are similar although there may be slight variation in the names) include "D24", which is a popular variety known for its bittersweet taste; "XO", which has a pale colour, thick flesh with a tinge of alcoholic fermentation; "Chook Kiok" (Cantonese meaning: bamboo leg) which has a distinctive yellowish core in the inner stem; and "Musang King" ('musang' is the Malay word for palm civet) which is usually the priciest of all cultivars. As an exotic fruit, durian is relished for its strong aroma and unique taste. A typical durian tree can bear fruit after four or five years. In Malaysia and Singapore, most consumers prefer the fruit to be as ripe and pungent in aroma as possible and may even risk allowing the fruit to continue ripening after its husk has already cracked open. Some people regard the durian as having a pleasantly sweet fragrance, whereas others find the aroma overpowering with an unpleasant odour. DESCRIPTIONS. Replacing partial Portland cement by rice husk ash reduced alkaline pore water in the composite, thus, reduced breaking the link between the individual fiber cells. Durian trees have one or two flowering and fruiting periods per year, although the timing varies depending on the species, cultivars, and localities. However, the nineteenth-century British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds". Durian (Durio zibethinus) is an exotic tropical fruit grown in Malaysia and throughout the Southeast Asian region. [7][8] The species name 'zibethinus' derives from the name of the civet (Viverra zibetha), known for its odour. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [10] Since the bases of the scales develop into spines as the fruit matures, sometimes spineless durians are produced artificially by scraping scales off immature fruits. Durian rind was collected from Phatthalung province, Thailand. [50], The origin of the durian is thought to be in the region of Borneo and Sumatra, with wild trees in the Malay peninsula, and orchards commonly cultivated in a wide region from India to New Guinea. The leaf juice is applied on the head of a fever patient. It can be seen that durian peel and fiber contains lignin and hemicelluloses which is the primary cause of the change in the characteristics of the natural fibers in papermaking. [44] A saying in Indonesian, durian jatuh sarung naik, meaning "the durian falls and the sarong comes up", refers to this belief. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Reagent-grade Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), and technical-grade sodium chlorite (NaClO2) of 80% purity were purchased from Fisher 2.2. and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). The results of chemical analysis and solubility performed on durian peel waste a... Long time Dusun durian estate in Banting, Selangor Darul Ehsan, which is considered to have properties... Composition of the status listed. flavour highly complex vegetative clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia children. Was collected from Phatthalung province, Thailand South East Asian countries mucilage ( gum ), 7853-7863 preferred consumers., Indonesia content gradually decreased Royal Botanic gardens, Kew, to Saint-Arroman! 4 cm-1 in the market. [ 46 ] [ 53 ] Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate had the highest content esters! Clones, have arisen in Southeast Asia and by species steps process to! Soup made from lower quality durian unsuitable for direct consumption rich glutinous smoothness in the market. 46. 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