We also discuss administrative details of the course, although these are not included here, but can be found on the course web page.1 1.1 Computation vs. is_bigger(X, Y) :- bigger(X, Z), is_bigger(Z, Y). statements are called rules and are implemented like this: is_bigger(X, Y) :- bigger(X, Y). Let's look at the simple example in more detail. X, Y, and Z are variables, which in Prolog is indicated by using capital letters. The classic methods of representing knowledge use either rules or logic. To understand how a problem can be solved in logic programming, we need to know about the building blocks − Facts and Rules − Prolog does not contain any statements that specifically "administer" the flow of the program. In Prolog programming, a(n) _____ represents one of the main subjects that a fact describes. It has syntax and semantics. Its highly optimized execution algorithm delivers efficiency far in excess of existing logic programming systems, and close to conventional programming systems. • An important programming paradigm is to express a program as a set of rules • The rules are independent and often unordered • CFGs can be thought of as a rule based system • We’ll take a brief look at a particular sub-paradigm, Logic Programming • And at Prolog, the most successful of the logic programming languages What is a logic. • A Prolog program is a list of facts. Prolog Program Control. Often used in genetic and evolutionary programming, this approach generally tells a model what goal to accomplish, rather than how to accomplish it. PROLOG programs are composed of facts and rules. programming language particularly well suited to logic and artificial intelligence programming As in coinductive logic programming, interpretations are subsets of the complete Herbrand basis, including infinite terms. Constraint logic programming combines both the above practices. These are often called if-then rules. z. Representing Knowledge using rules in AI. PROLOG interpreter has a deduction engine. By Logic Programming I mean the a sub-paradigm of declarative programming languages. • Instead of CNF, prolog uses an implicative The … It was invented i… Logical programming is a programming paradigm which has its foundations in mathematical logic. z. In Prolog, facts are used to form the statements. Logic Programming. true. • Prolog (programming in logic) is a logic-based programming language: programs correspond to sets of logical formulas and the Prolog interpreter uses logical methods to resolve queries. Mercury addresses the problems of large-scale program development, allowing modularity, separate … • Hence we go for PREDICATE LOGIC 36 37. They also follow a declarative rather than an imperative approach. Prolog uses unification to match queries with rule heads and facts. Unlike many other programming languages, Prolog is intended primarily as a declarative programming language. Facts consist of a specific item or relation between two or more items. 06-25433 – Logic Programming The key goals of the presentation are to show several important methods of knowledge representation in Prolog and the declarative programming methodology of Prolog. In prolog, logic is expressed as relations (called as Facts and Rules). The goal of this exercise is to enable the writing of functions like prolog_func(), where a collection of facts and rules can be written in a language reminiscent of Prolog and First-Order Logic. Specific problems that we wish to solve in this domain are posed as questions or queries. Similarly, we can assert the simple fact that Socrates is a person. Conceptually, a rule is very simple: if A B C then D E Meaning, "if A, B and C are true, then D and E are also true". person (socrates). Nevertheless, logic programming does require special skills and attention to the order in which statements are executed. z. Syntax: the rules about how to form formulas; this is usually the easy part of a logic. The most popular logic programming language now is Prolog. 15-819K: Logic Programming Lecture 1 Logic Programming Frank Pfenning August 29, 2006 In this first lecture we give a brief introduction to logic programming. Information provided to the computer in logic programs can be classified into facts and rules. In these rules :- means something like \if" and the comma between the two terms bigger(X, Z) and is_bigger(Z, Y) stands for \and". You write down the things you know, write down the rules that hold true for these things, and then you ask questions. Prolog will attempt to return every solution – in the order that they occur in the program. '); rule: a pattern-action declaration based on a fact (or other rules) expressed in … A logic is a language. Table displays the knowledge for the zoo animals problem in two formats–using rules on the left as implemented within the Knowledge Representation NetLogo model, and using first order logic on … Facts are rules that are always true. A goal needs to be specified for every program in logic programming. Logic programming is a programming strategy that uses logic circuits to control how facts and rules are expressed, rather than only mathematical functions. z. The first rule is simple and can be formulated as: For all X and Z, X is a predecessor of Z if X is a parent of Z. PROLOG SYNTAX: predecessor (X,Z):-parent (X,Z). Backward chaining (or logic programming) is important for implementing complex searches. • There are various predicates and functions supplied to support I/O, graphics, etc. In contrast to languages like Java or C, programs written in a logic programming languages such as Prolog are not composed of sequences of instructions but of a set of axioms, or rules which define relationships between objects. rule(q0, b, qf, 1, stay). That is why they are called the building blocks of Logic Programming. • Prolog is a declarative language: you specify what problem you want to solve rather than how to solve it. 3 This machine performs incrementation by one of a number in unary encoding: It loops over any number of "1" cells and appends an additional "1" at the end. In another example in which logic errors exist, word processors might sometimes use an automated spell checker; these spell checkers are notorious for missing logic errors. It has important role in artificial intelligence. Logic Programming - Prolog • Prolog is a declarative programming language based on logic. Similarly, logic programming expresses facts and rules about the domain in which the developer is working. The set of rules that specify the sequence of keywords, parameters, and punctuation in a program instruction is ... Prolog programming is all about facts and rules. Like, “who killed John F. Kennedy”? In classical logic we might say "All people are mortal," or, rephrased for Prolog, "For all X, X is mortal if X is a person." Logic Programming uses facts and rules for solving the problem. We introduce a generalized logic programming paradigm where programs, consisting of facts and rules with the usual syntax, can be enriched by co-facts, which syntactically resemble facts but have a special meaning. This knowledge base of facts and rules describes the problem domain. They can only do logical operations very fast, that's all we can expect from machines. They don't do surveillance or interrogation. A simple example Turing machine is specified by the facts: rule(q0, 1, q0, 1, right). Semantics: about the meaning carried by the formulas, mainly in terms of logical consequences. Example query and result: PROLOG = PROgramming + LOGic; The following figure situates PROLOG in relation to other programming paradigms and languages [ESPP]: (adapted from [ESPP]) fact: an axiom is asserted to be true (e.g., `It is raining. Representing simple facts (Preposition) “SOCRATES IS A MAN” SOCRATESMAN -----1 “PLATO IS A MAN” PLATOMAN -----2 Fails to capture relationship between Socrates and man. •Prolog (PROgramming in LOGic) represents programs as logical Horn clauses and treats execution as answering queries with backward chaining. Don't confuse this question with "What problems can you solve with if-then-else?" However, what does that mean? 2.1 Map colorings This section uses a famous mathematical problem -- that of coloring planar maps -- to motivate logical representations of facts and rules in Prolog. PREDICATE LOGIC • Can represent objects and quantification • Theorem proving is semi-decidable 37 38. For instance, the noun “sale” might be misrepresented by the noun “sail” in a sentence. The programmer can focus attention on defining the rules and does not need to deal with the mechanics of backward chaining and backtracking. mortal (X) :- person (X). Control and logic are separated for this form of programming to work. 4 CS 2740 Knowledge Representation M. Hauskrecht KB in Horn form • Horn form: a clause with at most one positive literal • Not all sentences in propositional logic can be converted into the Horn form • KB in Horn normal form: – Three types of propositional statements: • Rules • Facts • Integrity constraints (A∨¬B) ∧(¬A∨¬C ∨D) (B1 ∧B2 ∧KBk ⇒ A) More than a language, it has inference rules. Logic programming is about making computers deduce facts for you. The computer examines the query in the context of the rules and facts and determines the solution. Prolog is a logic programming language. Core heart of prolog lies at the logic being applied. Instead, the interpreter starts with the query and searches for applicable facts and rules that can be substituted for elements of the query until either the query is found to be true or all facts and rules have been tried that indicates there is no resolution. Of course, computers can only juggle the facts you provide. They don't have intuition. 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